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What is an IP Address?

The IP address is a common term we come across if we speak of the Internet & computers. An IP address (Internet Protocol address) is a numerical representation of a particular interface. The Internet protocol is a collection of communication rules via the Internet, including the transmission of messages, streaming video, or a web connection. Internet protocol is a set of internet communication rules. An IP address identifies a network or internet computer.

An IP address, or just the "IP," identifies a device on the Internet or local network. It enables other systems connected via internet protocol to recognize a system. There are two primary versions used in the IP address format—IPv4 & IPv6

The IP address for each device connected to a computer network that uses a communication internet protocol (IP address) is a numerical label. An IP address consists of two main functions the host or network interface identification and localization addressing.

Version 4 (IPv4) of the Internet Protocol defines an IP address as 32-bit numbers. However, the Internet has grown, and IPv4 addresses have deteriorated. A new IP version (IPv6) was standardized in 1998 using 128 bits for IP addresses. Since the mid-2000s, the use of IPv6 has been ongoing.

An IPv4 address is 32-bit in size, restricting the address space to 4294967296 (232) addresses. Of this number, specific addresses such as private networks (~18 million addresses) and multicast addressing (~270 million addresses) are reserved for specific purposes.

At IPv6, the size of the address in IPv4 was increased from 32 bits to 128 bits and thereby to 2128 (roughly 3.403*1038) addresses. Right now, that is deemed appropriate.

Different reserved addresses and other considerations reduce the total usable address pool of both variants. A range of reserved addresses and other concerns reduce the total usable address pool of both versions. IP addresses are binary numbers but are typically represented as decimal (IPv4) or hexadecimal (IPv6) numbers for easier reading and human use.

The total available address pool of the two versions is that of various reserved addresses and other deliberations. The total available address pool of both versions eliminates a set of reserved addresses and other considerations. IP addresses are binary numbers but are usually represented by decimal numbers for easier reading and human use (IPv5) or hexadecimal numbers (IPv6).

Source: www.123rf.com

Understanding the IPv4 Standard

In IPv4 address space, there are a total of 32 bits. For example, the number "24" refers to how many bits are found within a network when it has the address "192.0.2.0/24." Therefore it is possible to calculate the number of bits left for space address. Since all of the IPV4 networks have 32 bits, and each "decimal" segment has an 8-bit address, "192.0.2.0/24" has an 8-bit host address. There is plenty of space for 256 guests. These host addresses are the IP addresses required to connect your computer to the Internet. These bytes are usually referred to as octets, and these octets, bits, and bytes are written in a pointed decimal to be readable. A dotted-decimal separates every IP address octet.

For example, a computer in binary notation has a standard IP address (IPv4):

w.x.y.z

This means pointed decimal: That means: 192.168.1.0

A network component and a node component are two components of an IP address.

For instance, our house address has a house number and street name. Likewise, the network number is equivalent to the name of the streets for computer networks, and the house number is the node's address.

The earlier implementation of IPv4 split the address space into network and node components with address groups.

IP addresses have not adopted this system, but Class A, B, and C are still used.

Class A—Net.Node.Node.Node (8 bits for the network address and 24 bits for node addresses)

Class B—Net.Net.Node.Node (16 bits for the network addresses and 24 bits for node addresses)

Class C—Net.Net.Net.Node (24 bits for the network addresses and 8 bits for node address)

Understanding the IPv6 Standard

The Internet Protocol's latest version, IPv6, identifies devices over the Internet to locate them. In order to communicate online, every device that uses the Internet has its own IP address. It's just as important as the street addresses and zip codes you need to learn to post a letter.

In the Internet's 40 year existence, IPv6 is the most significant update. Future carriers and companies will use IPv6 because the Internet runs out of the assigned IP addresses using the current IPv4 standard.

Eight hexadecimal groups consist of IPv6 addresses. A 16-bit hexadecimal value is given to each hexadecimal community, separated by a colon (:). An example of the IPv6 format is given below:

xxxx: xxxx: xxxx: xxxx: xxxx:

An xxxx unit expresses the 16-bit hexadecimal value. A 4-bit hexadecimal value is shown in every single x. An example of a potential IPv6 address is given below:

4FDD:0010:0000:0022:0022:F387:FE3B:AC4E

The first 64 bits (4FDE:0000:0000:0002) are network but, the rest is the device ID (device bits). The network component is provided by an ISP (ARIN or RIPE) or by the registry.

Exhaustion of the IPv4 Standard

Terms like "run-out," "exhaustion," or "depletion" are used interchangeably when speaking of IPv4 addresses. Whatever word is used, they all point to the same problem – the acute lack of unused IPv4 addresses affecting worldwide network operators now.

A lack of IPv4 addresses will create many problems for a network that needs new users to expand or attach. Most networks are currently trying to reduce the scarcity of IPv4-based transmitting systems, or use CGNAT-types, for example, by obtaining surplus addresses from other networks. Although these solutions can make sense in the immediate term, either solution does not fix the fundamental problem – that in IPv4, there are not enough addresses to sustain the Internet as wide as today.

Has IPv6 solved the problem for good?

IPv6 uses 128-bit addresses, making a far greater number of potential addresses than the 32-bit addresses used in IPv4. This creates potentially 340 trillion addresses for each bit corresponding to the ''0'' or ''1.'' IPv4, however, allows 2 ^ 32 combinations with up to 4.7 billion addresses.

The number of usable addresses is, in practice, smaller than that of IPv6 addresses for routing and other purposes, while specific ranges are specifically reserved for use. However, there are still vast numbers of IPv6 addresses available.

Network operators and big businesses are usually expected to receive a /32 address block, smaller companies a /48, and home users a /56 (where a single IPv4 address is typically available). This offers scalability and potential subnetting and enables a nearly infinite number of subnet addresses.

It is commonly misunderstood that assigning large IPv6 prefixes to end customers is wasteful. Still, the IPv6 address space is so large, that a /48 could be assigned to all humans for the coming 480 years before they run out, has been calculated (by Tony Hain).

How do I check if I am on IPv6 now on Windows? (Source)

Preparation

To prepare for this activity:

● Start Windows.

● Log in if necessary.

● Activity 1 - Display IPv6 Information

● To display IPv6 information:

● Open an elevated/administrator command prompt.

● To display IP address information use ipconfig. Examine the results. You should see one or more IPv6 addresses, if IPv6 is enabled. A typical Windows 7 computer has a ISATAP tunnel adapter with media disconnected, a Link-local IPv6 Address and a Teredo tunnel adapter. Link-local addresses begin with fe80::/10. ISATAP addresses are specific link-local addresses beginning with fe80::200:5efe/96. Teredo addresses begin with 2001:0::/32.

● Enter the command "netsh interface ipv6 show interfaces". Observe the results listed in the interfaces where IPv6 is enabled. All netsh parameters may be abbreviated, but the abbreviation must be a unique parameter. "netsh interface ipv6 show interfaces" may be entered as "netsh i ipv6 sh i".

● Enter the command "netsh interface ipv6 show addresses". Now examine the results listing the interface IPv6 addresses.

● Enter the command "netsh interface ipv6 show destinationcache". Now examine the results listing recent IPv6 destinations.

● Enter the command "netsh interface ipv6 show dnsservers". Now examine the results listing ""IPv6 DNS server"" settings.

● Enter the command "netsh interface ipv6 show neighbors". Now examine the results listing IPv6 neighbors. This is comparable to the IPv4 ARP cache.

● Enter the command "netsh interface ipv6 show route". Now examine the results listing IPv6 route information.

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